FRANCIS I°

FRANCIS I°, Austrian emperor 1792–1835, last Holy Roman Emperor (as Francis II) until 1806. In 1792 Francis ordered the Judenamt (office for Jewish affairs) to enforce the numerous restrictions on Jewish settlement in vienna and raised the Bolleten (tax paid by a Jew each time he entered the city). The preamble to his 1797 patent granted to Bohemian Jewry   (see bohemia ), proclaiming equality as its ultimate aim, raised expectations which remained unfulfilled. Most of the petitions for improvement of the status of the Jews addressed to him by representatives of the Jews in the empire were unanswered, though in 1798 Francis authorized the existence of 52 communities in moravia . He agreed to the official use of "Mr." instead of "Jew" in reference to Jewish citizens. During the Congress of vienna a petition requesting partial equality presented by B. eskeles , N.A. arnstein , and L. Herz met with no success (see also metternich ). In Francis' Italian provinces, however, emancipation measures were not revoked. In Galicia, Francis supported naphtali herz homberg ; knowledge of his catechism Benei Zion was made compulsory in 1810 for all Jewish couples registering their marriages. While regularly making use of Jewish finance and financial advice, Francis unhesitatingly blamed Jewish financiers for all the economic ills of the empire. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A.F. Pribram, Urkunden und Akten zur Geschichte der Juden in Wien, 1–2 (1918), index; M. Grunwald, Vienna (1936), 168–71; Kisch, in: HJ, 8 (1946), 24; S. Baron, Die Judenfrage an dem Wiener Kongress (1920), 20–23, 118, 183; Dubnow, Weltgesch, 8 (1920–23), 280–93; R. Kestenberg-Gladstein, Neuere Geschichte der Juden in den boehmischen Laendern, 1 (1969), index.

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Francis — ist als eine Variante von Franciscus ein männlicher und weiblicher Vorname lateinischer Herkunft[1][2], der auch als Familienname vorkommt. Eine Kurzform des Vornamens ist Fran. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Namensträger 1.1 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Francis I — • King of France; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547 Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Francis I     Francis I      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Francis — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Francis es una nombre propio originario de los idiomas francés, inglés y escocés, descendientes del nombre Latín Franciscus, hace referencia a: Francis Bacon, filósofo británico; Francis Buchanan Hamilton, zoólogo y… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Francis II — may refer to:* Francis II, Duke of Brittany (1433–1488) * Francis II of France (1544–1560) * Francis II, Duke of Lorraine (1572–1632) * Francesco II d Este, Duke of Modena (1662–1694) * Francis II Rákóczi, Duke of Transylvania (1676–1735) *… …   Wikipedia

  • Francis I — may refer to:* Francis I, Duke of Brittany (1414 1450, reigned 1442 1450) * Francis I, Duke of Lorraine (1517–1545, reigned 1544–1545) * Francis I of France (1494 1547, reigned 1515 1547) * Francesco I de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (1541 1587 …   Wikipedia

  • FRANCIS (S.) — FRANCIS SAM (1923 1994) Après la «percée» abstraite de l’action painting , qui avait renouvelé l’art américain des années 1950, on voit apparaître de nombreuses tendances picturales, toutes, d’une manière ou d’une autre, influencées par l’art qui …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Francis Ng — Chinese name 吳鎮宇 (Traditional) Chinese name 吴 …   Wikipedia

  • Francis — Francis, OK U.S. town in Oklahoma Population (2000): 332 Housing Units (2000): 155 Land area (2000): 0.585408 sq. miles (1.516199 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.585408 sq. miles (1.516199 sq.… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Francis —   [ frɑːnsɪs],    1) Emerich, Soziologe, * Gablonz an der Neiße 27. 6. 1906, ✝ München 14. 1. 1994; nach seiner Emigration 1939 58 Lehrtätigkeit in Kanada und den USA; 1958 74 Professor in München; seit 1954 auch Gastprofessuren. Neben… …   Universal-Lexikon

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